In the beginning of his chapter on "The Unfolding Logics of Change," Morgan has us imagine a whirlpool in a river. The whirlpool appears to have its own form separate from the river around it, but in reality the whirlpool takes its form from the transformative power of the flowing river. Without the flow of water in the river, the whirlpool doesn't exist.


This analogy is used to start a discussion in which Morgan offers four metaphorical frames "for explaining how the explicit reality of organizational life is formed and transformed by underlying processes that have an order or logic of their own." (p. 242)


Please use the links across the top of this page to explore the four logics of change, as well as our assessment of the impact of these concepts on needs analysis practices.


4 logics of change

  • Autopoiesis
  • Chaos and Complexity
  • Mutual Causality
  • Dialectical Change








The universe is in a constant state of flux, embodying characteristics of both permanence and change.






whirlpool image